I was interested to get Rsync up and running on my Solaris 10 server – an UltraSPARC based SunFire V100. To my dismay the Rsync package is not available for Solaris 10 from SUN. So I decided to set out on a journey to discover how exactly to get Rsync “the right way” and to get it installed and working.
After much searching I discovered that the obvious SUNWrsync package does, in fact, exist but not, at this time, for Solaris 10. Rather it is only available in Solaris Express (aka Solaris 11.) This means that it is not available in the standard Solaris 10 Update 4 or earlier installation CDs. Rsync has not been available on any previous version of Solaris to my knowledge either. The version of Rsync available from Solaris Express is currently 2.6.9 which is current, as of November 6, 2006, according to the official Rsync project page.
Fortunately SUN has made Solaris Express available as a free download. Unfortunately it is a single DVD image that must be downloaded in three parts and then combined into a single, huge image. This is not nearly as convenient as having an online package repository from which a single package could be downloaded (hint, hint SUN!)
You will need to download all three files from SUN, unzip them and then concatenate them into a single 3.7GB ISO file from which you can extract the necessary package.
# unzip sol-nv-b64a-sparc-dvd-iso-a.zip
# unzip sol-nv-b64a-sparc-dvd-iso-b.zip
# unzip sol-nv-b64a-sparc-dvd-iso-c.zip
# cat sol*a sol*b sol*c > sol-nv-sparc.iso
# mkdir /mnt/iso
# lofiadm -a sol-nv-sparc.iso /dev/lofi/1
# mount -F hsfs -o ro /dev/lofi/1 /mnt/iso
# cd /mnt/iso/Solaris_11/Product/
# ls -l | grep rsync
You will now have the list of the two available Rsync packages: SUNWrsync and SUNWrsyncS. It is SUNWrsync that we are really interested in here. I like to move all of my packages that I am installing to my own personal repository so that I can keep track of what I am installing and to make it easier to build a matching machine or to rebuild this one. If you are going to use a repository in this way be sure to back it up or it won’t be very useful during a rebuild.
# cp -r SUNWrsync/ /data/PKG/
# pkgadd -d /data/PKG/
You will now be able to pick from the available packages in your repository to choose which to install. [Helpful hint: If you have a large number of packages in your personal repository, consider placing each package into its own directory. For example, make a directory called “rsync” or “rsync_client” and symlink (ln -s) back to the installation directory. This makes it easier and quicker to install a single package. You can simple “cd /data/PKG/rsync” and “pkgadd -d .” Much quick and easier for large repos. By using the symlink method you maintain a single directory of the files while also having handy individual directories.]
Once you have installed the Rsync client package it is ready to be used. Because we are not using Rsync in a server based configuration we have no configuration to worry about. Rsync is most popularly used as a client package over SSH. Unlike most network aware packages that require that an SSH tunnel be created for them Rsync has SSH tunneling built into it making it extremely easy to use.
Let start with an example of moving files from one server to another without using SSH.
/usr/bin/rsync -av remote-host:/data/home/ /data/home
In this example we are synchronizing the remote /data/home directory with the local one pulling files from the remote site to the local. This is a one way sync so only files missing locally are brought over and files that exist locally but do not exist remotely are left intact. This is a relatively safe process. Files of the same name will be overwritten, however, so do this with test directories until you are used to how it works. You can run a test command using the -n option. With this option you will get the output of the Rsync command without actually moving any files so that you have a chance to see what would have happened. Here is the same command run in “test” mode.
/usr/bin/rsync -avn sc-sol-nfs:/data/home/ /data/home
With this particular Rsync package, the default mode of operation is to use SSH as the transport. This can be set explicitly but that is not necessary. By using SSH you have the security of the SSL tunnel to protect your traffic and you have the security and ease of use that comes with not needing to run a daemon process on any server that you want to sync to or from. The final command that you will normally want to run will involve the “-z” option which turns on file compression. This will normally decrease the time that it takes to transfer files. The gzip algorithm used for the compression is very effective on text documents and general files and is quite fast but on already compressed files such as tgz, Z, zip, jpeg, jpg, png, gif, mp3, etc. it can, at worst case, actually expand the files and will use a lot of CPU overhead without increasing the transfer speed. So best to be aware of the file types that you will be transferring. But for most users gzip is the right compression to use. So our final transfer command is:
/usr/bin/rsync -avz sc-sol-nfs:/data/home/ /data/home